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One of the significant challenges that substation engineers face is justifying substation automation investments. The positive impacts that automation has on operating costs, increased power quality, and reduced outage response are well known. But little attention is paid to how the use of a communication standard impacts the cost to build and operate the substation. Legacy communication protocols were typically developed with the dual objective of providing the necessary functions required by electric power systems while minimizing the number of bytes that were used by the protocol because of severe bandwidth limitations that were typical of the serial link technology available 10-15 years ago when many of these protocols were initially developed. Later, as Ethernet and modern networking protocols like TCP/IP became widespread, these legacy protocols were adapted to run over TCP/IP-Ethernet.

This approach provided the same basic electric power system capabilities as the serial link version while bringing the advantages of modern networking technologies to the substation. But this approach has a fundamental flaw: the protocols being used were still designed to minimize the bytes on the wire and do not take advantage of the vast increase in bandwidth that modern networking technologies deliver by providing a higher level of functionality that can significantly reduce the implementation and operational costs of substation automation.

IEC 61850 is unique. IEC 61850 is not a former serial link protocol recast onto TCP/IP-Ethernet. IEC 61850 was designed from the ground up to operate over modern networking technologies and delivers an unprecedented amount of functionality that is simply not available from legacy    communications    protocols.    These    unique characteristics of IEC 61850 have a direct and positive impact on the cost to design, build, install, commission, and operate power systems. While legacy protocols on Ethernet enable the substation engineer to do exactly the same thing that was done 10-15 years ago using Ethernet, IEC 61850 enables fundamental improvements in the substation automation process that is simply not possible with a legacy approach, with or without TCP/IP-Ethernet. To better understand the specific benefits we will first examine some of the key features and capabilities of IEC 61850 and then explain how these result in significant benefits that cannot be achieved with the legacy approach

Key Features

The features and characteristics of IEC 61850 that enable unique advantages are so numerous that they cannot practically be listed here. Some of these characteristics are seemingly small but yet can have a tremendous impact on substation automation systems.

For instance, the use of VLANs and priority flags for GOOSE and SMV enable much more intelligent use of Ethernet switches that in and of itself can deliver significant benefits to users that aren’t available with other approaches. For the sake of brevity, we will list here some of the more key features that provide significant benefits to users:

  • Use of a Virtualized Model. The virtualized model of logical devices, logical nodes, ACSI, and CDCs enables definition of the data, services, and behavior of devices to be defined in addition to the protocols that are used to define how the data is transmitted over the network.
  • Use of Names for All Data. Every element of IEC 61850 data is named using descriptive strings to describe the data. Legacy protocols, on the other hand, tend to identify data by storage location and use index numbers, register numbers and the like to describe data.
  • All Object Names are Standardized and Defined in a Power System Context. The names of the data in the IEC 61850 device are not dictated by the device vendor or configured by the user. All names are defined in the standard and provided in a power system context that enables the engineer to immediately identify the meaning of data without having to define mappings that relate index numbers and register numbers to power system data like voltage and current.
  • Devices are Self-Describing. Client applications that communicate with IEC 61850 devices are able to download the description of all the data supported by the device from the device without any manual configuration of data objects or names.
  • High-Level Services. ACSI supports a wide variety of services that far exceeds what is available in the typical legacy protocol. GOOSE, GSSE, SMV, and logs are just a few of the unique capabilities of IEC 61850.
  • Standardized Configuration Language. SCL enables the configuration of a device and its role in the power system to be precisely defined using XML files.

Major Benefits

The features described above for IEC 61850 deliver substantial benefits to users that understand and take advantage of them. Rather than simply approaching an IEC 61850 based system in the same way as any other system, a user that understands and takes advantage of the unique capabilities will realize significant benefits that are not available using legacy approaches.

  • Eliminate Procurement Ambiguity. Not only can SCL be used to configure devices and power systems, SCL can also be used to precisely define user requirement for substations and devices. Using SCL a user can specify exactly and unambiguously what is expected to be provided in each device that is not subject to misinterpretation by suppliers.
  • Lower Installation Cost. IEC 61850 enables devices to quickly exchange data and status using GOOSE and GSSE over the station LAN without having to wire separate links for each relay. This significantly reduces wiring costs by more fully utilizing the station LAN bandwidth for these signals and construction costs by reducing the need for trenching, ducts, conduit, etc.
  • Lower Transducer Costs. Rather than requiring separate transducers for each device needing a particular signal, a single merging unit supporting SMV can deliver these signals to many devices using a single transducer lowering transducer, wiring, calibration, and maintenance costs.
  • Lower Commissioning Costs. The cost to configure and commission devices is drastically reduced because IEC 61850 devices don’t require as much manual configuration as legacy devices. Client applications no longer need to manually configured for each point they need to access because they can retrieve the points list directly from the device or import it via an SCL file. Many applications require nothing more than setting up a network address in order to establish communications. Most manual configuration is eliminated drastically reducing errors and rework.
  • Lower Equipment Migration Costs. Because IEC 61850 defines more of the externally visible aspects of the devices besides just the encoding of data on the wire, the cost for equipment migrations is minimized. Behavioral differences from one brand of device to another is minimized and, in some cases, completely eliminated. All devices share the same naming conventions minimizing the reconfiguration of client applications when those devices are changed.
  • Lower Extension Costs. Because IEC 61850 devices don’t have to be configured to expose data, new extensions are easily added into the substation without having to reconfigure devices to expose data that was previously not accessed. Adding devices and applications into an existing IEC 61850 system can be done with only a minimal impact, if any, on any of the existing equipment.
  • Lower Integration Costs. By utilizing the same networking technology that is being widely used across the utility enterprise the cost to integrate substation data into the enterprise is substantially reduced. Rather than installing costly RTUs that have to be manually configured and maintained for each point of data needed in control center and engineering office application, IEC 61850 networks are capable of delivering data without separate communications front-ends or reconfiguring devices.
  • Implement New Capabilities. The advanced services and unique features of IEC 61850 enables new capabilities that are simply not possible with most legacy protocols. Wide area protection schemes that would normally be cost prohibitive become much more feasible. Because devices are already connected to the substation LAN, the incremental cost for accessing or sharing more device data becomes insignificant enabling new and innovative applications that would be too costly to produce otherwise.

Conclusions

IEC 61850 is now released to the industry. Ten parts of the standard are now International Standards (part 10 is a draft international standard). This standard addresses most of the issues that migration to the digital world entails, especially, standardization of data names, creation of a comprehensive set of services, implementation over standard protocols and hardware, and definition of a process bus.

Multi-vendor interoperability has been demonstrated and compliance certification processes are being established. Discussions are underway to utilize IEC 61850 as the substation to control center communication protocol. IEC 61850 will become the protocol of choice as utilities migrate to network solutions for the substations and beyond.

SOURCE: Ralph Mackiewicz SISCO, Inc. Sterling Heights, MI USA

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Standard IEC 60947-2

Standard IEC 60947-2 | Circuit Breakers

This standard applies to circuit-breakers, the main contacts of which are intended to be connected to circuits, the rated voltage of which does not exceed 1000 VAC or 1500 VDC.; it also contains additional requirements for integrally fused circuit-breakers.

It applies whatever the rated currents, the method of construction or the proposed applications of the circuit-breakers may be.

Changes in dependability needs and technologies have led to a marked increase in standard requirements for industrial circuit-breakers.

Conformity with standard IEC 947-2, renamed IEC 60947-2 in 1997, can be considered as an ‘all-risk’ insurance for use of circuit-breakers. This standard has been approved by all countries.

The principles

Standard IEC 60947-2 is part of a series of standards defining the specifications for LV electrical switchgear:

  • the general rules IEC 60947-1, that group the definitions, specifications and tests common to all LV industrial switchgear.
  • the product standards IEC 60947-2 to 7, that deal with specifications and tests specific to the product concerned. Standard IEC 60947-2 applies to circuit-breakers and their associated trip units. Circuit-breaker operating data depend on the trip units or relays that control their opening in specific conditions.

This standard defines the main data of industrial circuit-breakers:

  • their classification: utilisation category, suitability for isolation, etc.
  • the electrical setting data
  • the information useful for operation
  • the design measures
  • coordination of protection devices

The standard also draws up series of conformity tests to be undergone by the circuitbreakers. These tests, which are very complete, are very close to real operating conditions. Conformity of these tests with standard IEC 60947-2 is verified by accredited laboratories.

Table of main data (appendix K IEC 60947-2):

Table of main data (appendix K IEC 60947-2)

Circuit-breaker category

Category IEC 60947-2 defines two circuit-breaker categories:

  • category A circuit-breakers, for which no tripping delay is provided. This is normally the case of moulded case circuit-breakers. These circuit-breakers can provide current discrimination.
  • category B circuit-breakers, for which, in order to provide time discrimination, tripping can be delayed (up to 1 s) for all short-circuits of value less than the current Icw.

This is normally the case of power or moulded case circuit-breakers with high ratings. For circuit-breakers installed in the MSBs, it is important to have an lcw equal to lcu in order to naturally provide discrimination up to full ultimate breaking capacity Icu.

Reminders of standard-related electrical data

The setting data are given by the tripping curves. These curves contain some areas limited by the following currents.

The setting data are given by the tripping curves.

  • Rated operational current (In)
    In (in A rms) = maximum uninterrupted current withstood at a given ambient temperature without abnormal temperature rise.
    E.g. 125 A at 40 °C
  • Adjustable overload setting current (lr)
    Ir (in A rms) is a function of ln. lr characterises overload protection. For operation in overload, the conventional non-tripping currents lnd and tripping currents ld are:

    • Ind = 1.05 Ir
    • Id = 1.30 Ir

    Id is given for a conventional tripping time. For a current greater than ld, tripping by thermal effect will take place according to an inverse time curve. Ir is known as Long Time Protection (LTP).

  • Short time tripping setting current (Isd)
    Isd
    (in kA rms) is a function of Ir. lsd characterises short-circuit protection. The circuit breaker opens according to the short time tripping curve:

    • either with a time delay tsd,
    • or with constant I2t,
    • or instantaneously (similar to instantaneous protection).

    Isd is known as Short Time Protection or lm.

  • Instantaneous tripping setting current (Ii)
    Ii (in kA) is given as a function of ln. It characterises the instantaneous short-circuit protection for all circuit-breaker categories. For high overcurrents (short-circuits) greater than the li threshold, the circuit-breaker must immediately break the fault current.
    .
    This protection device can be disabled according to the technology and type of circuit-breaker (particularly B category circuit-breakers).

Rated short time withstand current

Table for calculation of asymmetrical short-circuits (IEC 60947.2 para. 4.3.5.3.)

Table for calculation of asymmetrical short-circuits

  • Rated short-circuit making capacity(*) (Icm)
    Icm (peak kA) is the maximum value of the asymmetrical short-circuit current that the circuit-breaker can make and break. For a circuit-breaker, the stress to be managed is greatest on closing on a short-circuit.
  • Rated ultimate breaking capacity(*) (Icu)
    Icu (kA rms) is the maximum short-circuit current value that the circuit-breaker can break. It is verified according to a sequence of standardised tests. After this sequence, the circuit-breaker must not be dangerous. This characteristic is defined for a specific voltage rating Ue.
  • Rated service breaking capacity(*) (Ics)
    Ics (kA rms) is given by the manufacturer and is expressed as a % of Icu. This performance is very important as it gives the ability of a circuit-breaker to provide totally normal operation once it has broken this short-circuit current three times. The higher Ics, the more effective the circuit-breaker.
  • Rated short time withstand current(*) (Icw)
    Defined for B category circuit-breakers
    Icw (kA rms) is the maximum short-circuit current that the circuit-breaker can withstand for a short period of time (0.05 to 1 s) without its properties being affected. This performance is verified during the standardised test sequence.
    .
    (*) These data are defined for a specific voltage rating Ue.
Circuit-breaker coordination

The term coordination concerns the behaviour of two devices placed in series in electrical power distribution in the presence of a short-circuit.

Cascading and discrimination

  • Cascading or back-up protection
    This consists of installing an upstream circuit-breaker D1 to help a downstream circuit-breaker D2 to break short-circuit currents greater than its ultimate breaking capacity IcuD2. This value is marked IcuD2+D1.
    IEC 60947-2 recognises cascading between two circuit-breakers. For critical points, where tripping curves overlap, cascading must be verified by tests.
  • Discrimination
    This consists of providing coordination between the operating characteristics of circuit-breakers placed in series so that should a downstream fault occur, only the circuit-breaker placed immediately upstream of the fault will trip.
    IEC 60947-2 defines a current value ls known as the discrimination limit such that:

    • if the fault current is less than this value ls, only the downstream circuit-breaker D2 trips,
    • if the fault current is greater than this value ls, both circuit-breakers D1 and D2 trip.

    Just as for cascading, discrimination must be verified by tests for critical points.

Discrimination and cascading can only be guaranteed by the manufacturer who will record his tests in tables.

IEC 60947-2 Summary

Standard IEC 60947.2 specifies the main data of Industrial Circuit-Breakers:

  • the utilisation category
  • the setting data
  • the design measures
  • etc.

It draws up a series of very complete tests representative of circuit-breaker real operating conditions.

SOURCE: Schneider Electric

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There are two methods for indicating protection relay functions in common use. One is given in ANSI Standard C37-2, and uses a numbering system for various functions. The functions are supplemented by letters where amplification of the function is required. The other is given in IEC 60617, and uses graphical symbols. To assist the Protection Engineer in converting from one system to the other, a select list of ANSI device numbers and their IEC equivalents is given in Figure A2.1.

ANSI/IEC Relay Symbols

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IECPrincipi IEC standarda IEC 60364 i 60479-1 predstavljaju osnove na kome počiva većina električnih standarda u svetu. Dole su prikazani oni najvažniji. Više o ostalim standardima – klikni ovde.
IEC 60364-1 Electrical installations of buildings – Fundamental principles
IEC 60364-4-41 Electrical installations of buildings – Protection for safety – Protection against electric shock
IEC 60364-4-42 Electrical installations of buildings – Protection for safety – Protection against thermal effects
IEC 60364-4-43 Electrical installations of buildings – Protection for safety – Protection against overcurrent
IEC 60364-4-44 Electrical installations of buildings – Protection for safety – Protection against electromagnetic and voltage disrurbance
IEC 60364-5-51 Electrical installations of buildings – Selection and erection of electrical equipment – Common rules
IEC 60364-5-52 Electrical installations of buildings – Selection and erection of electrical equipment – Wiring systems
IEC 60364-5-53 Electrical installations of buildings – Selection and erection of electrical equipment – Isolation, switching and control
IEC 60364-5-54 Electrical installations of buildings – Selection and erection of electrical equipment – Earthing arrangements
IEC 60364-5-55 Electrical installations of buildings – Selection and erection of electrical equipment – Other equipments
IEC 60364-6-61 Electrical installations of buildings – Verification and testing – Initial verification
IEC 60364-7-701 Electrical installations of buildings – Requirements for special installations or locations – Locations containing a bath tub or shower basin
IEC 60364-7-702 Electrical installations of buildings – Requirements for special installations or locations – Swimming pools and other basins
IEC 60364-7-703 Electrical installations of buildings – Requirements for special installations or locations – Locations containing sauna heaters
IEC 60364-7-704 Electrical installations of buildings – Requirements for special installations or locations – Construction and demolition site installations
IEC 60364-7-705 Electrical installations of buildings – Requirements for special installations or locations – Electrical installations of agricultural and horticultural
premises
IEC 60364-7-706 Electrical installations of buildings – Requirements for special installations or locations – Restrictive conducting locations
IEC 60364-7-707 Electrical installations of buildings – Requirements for special installations or locations – Earthing requirements for the installation of data
processing equipment
IEC 60364-7-708 Electrical installations of buildings – Requirements for special installations or locations – Electrical installations in caravan parks and caravans
IEC 60364-7-709 Electrical installations of buildings – Requirements for special installations or locations – Marinas and pleasure craft
IEC 60364-7-710 Electrical installations of buildings – Requirements for special installations or locations – Medical locations
IEC 60364-7-711 Electrical installations of buildings – Requirements for special installations or locations – Exhibitions, shows and stands
IEC 60364-7-712 Electrical installations of buildings – Requirements for special installations or locations – Solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems
IEC 60364-7-713 Electrical installations of buildings – Requirements for special installations or locations – Furniture
IEC 60364-7-714 Electrical installations of buildings – Requirements for special installations or locations – External lighting installations
IEC 60364-7-715 Electrical installations of buildings – Requirements for special installations or locations – Extra-low-voltage lighting installations
IEC 60364-7-717 Electrical installations of buildings – Requirements for special installations or locations – Mobile or transportable units
IEC 60364-7-740 Electrical installations of buildings – Requirements for special installations or locations – Temporary electrical installations for structures,
amusement devices and booths at fairgrounds, amusement parks and circuses
IEC 60427 High-voltage alternating current circuit-breakers
IEC 60439-1 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies – Type-tested and partially type-tested assemblies
IEC 60439-2 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies – Particular requirements for busbar trunking systems (busways)
IEC 60439-3 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies – Particular requirements for low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies intended to
be installed in places where unskilled persons have access for their use – Distribution boards
IEC 60439-4 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear assemblies – Particular requirements for assemblies for construction sites (ACS)
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