12,118 views
Copper busbars are normally part of a larger generation or transmission system. The continuous rating of the main components such as generators, transformers, rectifiers, etc., therefore determine the nominal current carried by the busbars but in most power systems a one to four second short-circuit current has to be accommodated.
The value of these currents is calculated from the inductive reactances of the power system components and gives rise to different maximum short-circuit currents in the various system sections.
.
Performance under Short-circuit Conditions
Busbar trunking systems to BS EN 60439-2 are designed to withstand the effects of short-circuit currents resulting from a fault at any load point in the system, e.g. at a tap off point or at the end of a feeder run.
.
Rating under Short-circuit Conditions
The withstand ability will be expressed in one or more of the following ways:
- short-time withstand rating (current and time)
- peak current withstand rating
- conditional short-circuit rating when protected by a short-circuit protective device (s.c.p.d.)
These ratings are explained in more detail:
1. Short-time Withstand Rating
This is an expression of the value of rms current that the system can withstand for a specified period of time without being adversely affected such as to prevent further service. Typically the period of time associated with a short-circuit fault current will be 1 second, however, other time periods may be applicable.
The rated value of current may be anywhere from about 10kA up to 50kA or more according to the construction and thermal rating of the system.
2. Peak Current Withstand Rating
This defines the peak current, occurring virtually instantaneously, that the system can withstand, this being the value that exerts the maximum stress on the supporting insulation.
In an A.C. system rated in terms of short-time withstand current the peak current rating must be at least equal to the peak current produced by the natural asymmetry occurring at the initiation of a fault current in an inductive circuit. This peak is dependent on the power-factor of the circuit under fault conditions and can exceed the value of the steady state fault current by a factor of up to 2.2 times.
3. Conditional Short-circuit Rating
Short-circuit protective devices (s.c.p.ds) are commonly current-limiting devices; that is they are able to respond to a fault current within the first few milliseconds and prevent the current rising to its prospective peak value. This applies to HRC fuses and many circuit breakers in the instantaneous tripping mode. Advantage is taken of these current limiting properties in the rating of busbar trunking for high prospective fault levels. The condition is that the specified s.c.p.d. (fuse or circuit breaker) is installed up stream of the trunking. Each of the ratings above takes into account the two major effects of a fault current, these being heat and electromagnetic force.
The heating effect needs to be limited to avoid damage to supporting insulation. The electromagnetic effect produces forces between the busbars which stress the supporting mechanical structure, including vibrational forces on A.C. The only way to verify the quoted ratings satisfactorily is by means of type tests to the British Standard.
.
Type Testing
Busbar trunking systems are tested in accordance with BS EN 60439-2 to establish one or more of the short circuit withstand ratings defined above. In the case of short-time rating the specified current is applied for the quoted time. A separate test may be required to establish the peak withstand current if the quoted value is not obtained during the short-time test. In the case of a conditional rating with a specified s.c.p.d. the test is conducted with the full prospective current value at the trunking feeder unit and not less than 105% rated voltage, since the s.c.p.d. (fuse or circuit breaker) will be voltage dependent in terms of let through energy.
.
Application
It is necessary for the system designer to determine the prospective fault current at every relevant point in the installation by calculation, measurement or based on information provided e.g. by the supply authority. The method for this is well established, in general terms being the source voltage divided by the circuit impedance to each point. The designer will then select protective devices at each point where a circuit change occurs e.g. between a feeder and a distribution run of a lower current rating. The device selected must operate within the limits of the busbar trunking short-circuit withstand.
The time delay settings of any circuit breaker must be within the specified short time quoted for the prospective fault current. Any s.c.p.d. used against a conditional short-circuit rating must have energy limitation not exceeding that of the quoted s.c.p.d. For preference the s.c.p.d. recommended by the trunking manufacturer should be used.
.
Voltage Drop
The requirements for voltage-drop are given in BS 7671: Regulation 525-01-02. For busbar trunking systems the method of calculating voltage drop is given in BS EN 60439-2 from which the following guidance notes have been prepared.
Voltage Drop
Figures for voltage drop for busbar trunking systems are given in the manufacturer’s literature.
The figures are expressed in volts or milli-volts per metre or 100 metres, allowing a simple calculation for a given length of run.
The figures are usually given as line-to-line voltage drop for a 3 phase balanced load.
The figures take into account resistance to joints and temperature of conductors and assume the system is fully loaded.
Standard Data
BS EN 60439-2 requires the manufacturer to provide the following data for the purposes of calculation, where necessary:
R^{20} the mean ohmic resistance of the system, unloaded, at 20ºC per metre per phase
X the mean reactance of the system, per metre per phase
For systems rated over 630A:
R^{T} the mean ohmic resistance when loaded at rated current per metre per phase
Application
In general the voltage drop figures provided by the manufacturer are used directly to establish the total voltage drop on a given system; however this will give a pessimistic result in the majority of cases.
Where a more precise calculation is required (e.g. for a very long run or where the voltage level is more critical) advantage may be taken of the basic data to obtain a more exact figure.
- Resistance – the actual current is usually lower than the rated current and hence the resistance of the conductors will be lower due to the reduced operating temperature.
.
Rx = R20 [1+0.004(Tc - 20)] ohms/metre and Tc is approximately Ta + Trwhere Rx is the actual conductor resistance
Ta is the ambient temperature
Tr is the full load temperature rise in ºC (assume say 55ºC)
- Power factor – the load power factor will influence the voltage drop according to the resistance and reactance of the busbar trunking itself.
The voltage drop line-to-line ( Δv) is calculated as follows:Δv = √ 3 I (R x cos Φ + X sin Φ) volts/metre
where I is the load current
R_{x} is the actual conductor resistance (Ω/m)
X is the conductor reactance (Ω/m)
Cos Φ is the load power factor
sin Φ = sin (cos-1 Φ )
- Distributed Load – where the load is tapped off the busbar trunking along its length this may also be taken into account by calculating the voltage drop for each section. As a rule of thumb the full load voltage drop may be divided by 2 to give the approximate voltage drop at the end of a system with distributed load.
. - Frequency – the manufacturers data will generally give reactance (X) at 50Hz for mains supply in the UK. At any other frequency the reactance should be re-calculated.
.
X_{f} = x F/50
.
where X_{f} is the reactance at frequency F in Hz
.
Source: Siemens Barduct Busbar Specification
.
Related articles
Posted by ecsanyi on Tuesday, March 9, 2010 at 8:00 pm
Filed under Low Voltage, Technical Articles · Tagged with busbar, busbar trunking, distributed load, en 60439-2, fault current, frequency, insulation, peak current, Power factor, reactance, resistance, rms, short circuit, type testing, voltage drop, withstand rating
Low-voltage equipment standards IEC60947 and IEC60439 currently include short-circuit ratings for products and assemblies respectively, defined in terms of the ability of the equipment to operate at a level of peak current, an RMS current for a specified time and/or a level of current conditional upon a short-circuit protective device in series. In practice the correct application of the various short-circuit ratings needs to be fully understood by the circuit designer to avoid leaving a circuit or equipment with inadequate short-circuit protection. It is also useful to take full advantage of the capability of devices and systems to avoid over-engineering, with the consequent unnecessary additional cost. This guide does not concern itself with the issue of selectivity between devices in series, which must be considered separately.
Principles of Application
The Installation
In order to ensure the capability of equipment under short-circuits conditions the circuit designer must firstly have available the prospective fault level at the point of installation of each item of equipment. This is produced by a system protection study. IEC60781 provides an application guide for calculation of short-circuit currents in lowvoltage radial systems. Short-circuit parameters are defined by this guide in terms, which include the following:
- Prospective (available) short-circuit current:
The current that would flow if the short-circuit were replaced by an ideal connection of negligible impedance without any change of the supply. - Peak short-circuit current Ip
The maximum possible instantaneous value of the prospective (available) short-circuit current. - Symmetrical short-circuit breaking current Ib
The r.m.s. value of an integral cycle of the symmetrical a.c. component of the prospective (available) shortcircuit current at the instant of contact separation of the first pole of a switching device. - Steady-state short-circuit current Ik
The r.m.s. value of the short-circuit current which remains after the decay of the transient phenomena.
- unlimited
- limited by an SCPD (short-circuit protective device)
LV Assemblies (switchboard, distribution board etc.)
An assembly will have a short-circuit rating, assigned by the manufacturer, defined in terms of the maximum prospective fault level applicable at the point it is connected into the system.
This will have been determined by test and/or design calculations as specified in the assembly standard, IEC60439-1, or applicable part thereof.
The terminology to define the short-circuit rating of an assembly is given in the standard as follows:
- Rated short-time current (Icw) (of a circuit of an assembly)
Summarised as: The r.m.s value of short-time current that a circuit of an assembly can carry without damage under specified test conditions, defined in terms of a current and time e.g. 20kA, 0,2s. - Rated peak withstand current (Ipk) (of a circuit of an assembly)
Summarised as: The value of peak current that a circuit can withstand satisfactorily under specified test conditions. - Rated conditional short-circuit current (Icc) (of a circuit of an assembly)
Summarised as: The value of prospective short-circuit current that a circuit, protected by a specified shortcircuit protective device (SCPD), can withstand satisfactorily for the operating time of that device, under specified test conditions. Note: the short-circuit protective device may form an integral part of the assembly or may be a separate unit.An assembly may be assigned a value of Icc alone.
- An assembly may be assigned values of Icw and Ipk (but cannot be assigned a value of Icw or Ipk alone).
- An assembly may be assigned values of Icw, Ipk and Icc.
- An assembly may be assigned different values of Icc for different circuit protective devices and/or system voltages.
- An assembly may be assigned different values of Icw for different short-time periods e.g. 0.2s, 1s, 3 s.
Switchgear
In terms of short-circuit capability switchgear must be considered in respect of it’s function in the particular application. A switching device is considered in two respects, self-protection and use as a short-circuit protective device (SCPD) where applicable.
Switchgear – Self Protection Against Short Circuit
Two cases are considered:
- Load and overload switching alone, without any short-circuit switching capability:
In this case the switching device will be short-circuit rated on a similar basis to a circuit of an assembly (see above), with a rating of Icw and/or a conditional short-circuit rating, but will in addition have a rated short-circuit making capacity Icm. - Load, overload and short-circuit switching capability:
- Fused switchgear – in this case the short-circuit breaking function is provided by the integral fuses and the device will have a conditional short-circuit rating
- Circuit breakers – the circuit-breaker will be self-protecting up to its breaking capacity rating (see later). At fault levels above the breaking capacity rating a circuit-breaker may be capable of operating with ‘back-up’ protection by an SCPD (this is in effect a conditional rating, but the term is not generally used in this context).
Switchgear – Application as SCPD
- Fused Switchgear and Fuses as SCPD
Since the short-circuit breaking function in fused switchgear is provided by the fuses it is the fuse characteristics that are considered. These are given in IEC60269-1 as follows:- Breaking capacity of a fuselink
- value (for a.c. the r.m.s. value of the a.c. component) of prospective current that a fuselink is capable of breaking at a stated voltage under prescribed conditions. - Cut-off current
Summarised as: maximum instantaneous value reached by the current during the breaking operation of a fuselink when it operates to prevent the current reaching the prospective peak. - Operating I²t (Joule integral)
Summarised as: Integral of the square of the current over the operating time of the fuse.
Sometimes referred to as ‘energy let-through’. When expressed in A²t gives the energy dissipated per ohm and thus represents the thermal effect on the circuit.
- Breaking capacity of a fuselink
- Circuit-breakers as SCPD
- Moulded-case circuit-breakers (MCCBs) and air circuit-breakers (ACBs) are rated according to IEC60947-2 as follows
- Rated short-circuit making capacity (Icm)
Summarised as: The maximum peak prospective current that the circuit-breaker can make on to satisfactorily.
- Rated short-circuit making capacity (Icm)
- Rated short-circuit breaking capacities:
- Rated ultimate short-circuit breaking capacity (Icu)
Summarised as: The r.m.s prospective current that the circuit breaker is capable of breaking at a specified voltage under defined test conditions, which include one break and one make/break operations. - Rated service short-circuit breaking capacity (Ics)
Summarised as: The r.m.s prospective current that the circuit breaker is capable of breaking at a specified voltage under defined test conditions, which include one break and two make/break operations. The standard specifies fixed relationships to Icu of 25, 50, 75 or 100%. - Rated short-time withstand current (Icw)
Summarised as: The r.m.s value of short-time current assigned by the manufacturer based on specified test conditions. Minimum values are given in the standard.
- Rated ultimate short-circuit breaking capacity (Icu)
- Moulded-case circuit-breakers (MCCBs) and air circuit-breakers (ACBs) are rated according to IEC60947-2 as follows
A circuit-breaker can only be assigned a rated short-time withstand current Icw if it is equipped with a time-delay overcurrent release.
All circuit-breakers to IEC60947-2 will have values of Icu and Ics.
Characteristics of circuit-breakers not mandated in IEC60947-2 but having application to short-circuit protection:
- Cut-off current
The maximum instantaneous value reached by the current during the breaking operation of a circuit-breaker when it operates to prevent the current reaching the prospective peak. - Operating I²t (Joule integral)
Integral of the square of the current over the operating time of the circuit-breaker on a short-circuit. Sometimes referred to as ‘energy let-through’. When expressed in A²t gives the energy dissipated per ohm and thus represents the thermal effect on the circuit.
Examples of the Practical Application of the Product Characteristics
In simple studies only the r.m.s value of steady-state short-circuit current (Ik) is quoted. The peak current is assumed to be in a standard relationship to the r.m.s current, determined by the overall power factor, and taken into account in the rating of SCPDs to the respective IEC standards.
Circuit Protection
The application of short-circuit protective devices (SCPD) to circuit protection i.e. the protection of cables, is detailed in the installation rules, IEC364. In general it is accepted that selection of the protective device on the basis of thermal protection of a cable automatically provides short-circuit protection up to the breaking capacity of the SCPD, in the case of non-time-delayed devices.
Short-Circuit Protection for LV assemblies
Switchboard/Motor-Control Centre
The prospective short-circuit current at the input to the switchboard is obtained from a system protection study.
This will be given as an r.m.s value.
- If the switchboard has an Icw current value higher than the prospective current level then the only requirement is to limit the time for which a short-circuit could persist to within the short-time value. This is achieved by the setting of releases upstream or at the incomer to the switchboard.
- If the switchboard has an Icc rating higher than the prospective current level then the only requirement is to include the specified SCPD in the circuit. This may be added in the circuit upstream or may already be included as an incomer to the switchboard.
Busbar Trunking (BBT)
The prospective short-circuit current at the input to the switchboard is obtained from a system protection study.
This will be given as an r.m.s value.
- If the BBT has an Icw current value higher than the prospective short circuit current level then the only requirement is to limit the time for which a short-circuit could persist to within the short-time value. This is achieved by the time-delay setting of overcurrent releases upstream.
- If the BBT has an Icw lower than the prospective short circuit current level Ik but has an Icc rating higher than Ik then the only requirement is to include the specified SCPD in the circuit upstream or in the end-feed unit. The suitability of any given SCPD may be derived from the cut-off current and Joule-integral characteristics by comparison with proof-test parameters.
Motor Control Gear (MCG)
Motor starters and contactors are not generally self-protecting against the effects of short-circuit and therefore need to be associated with an SCPD. In this particular case test procedures to IEC60947-4-1 recognise the difficulty of protecting sensitive devices from damage under heavy short-circuit conditions. Thus a special case of conditional rating is obtained which allows two classes of co-ordination with an SCPD:
Type 1 – in which a certain amount of damage to the MCG is accepted.
Type 2 – in which the MCG is capable of further use.
These ratings can only be obtained by type-testing and thus the data must be obtained from the manufacturer of the SCPD or the MCG.
Miniature Circuit Breakers (MCBs)
When applied in other than domestic (household) situations the short-circuit capability of MCBs to IEC60898 is often inadequate and they need to be ‘backed-up’ by another SCPD. Details of how the appropriate SCPD is determined are given, for circuit-breakers, in Appendix A of IEC60947-2. Basically this shows that only testing of the required combination is satisfactory and thus the data must be obtained from the manufacturer of the SCPD or the MCB. The same applies to fuses used as SCPD.
Izvor: www.voltimum.co.uk
.
Related articles
Posted by ecsanyi on Sunday, September 6, 2009 at 5:25 pm
Filed under Low Voltage, Technical Articles · Tagged with breaker, busbar, load, Low Voltage, peak, protective device, short circuit, short-time, switchgear, withstand current