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ABB - General about motors

ABB - General about motors

Modern electrical motors are available in many different forms, such as single phase motors, three-phase motors, brake motors, synchronous motors, asynchronous motors, special customised motors, two speed motors, three speed motors, and so on, all with their own performance and characteristics.
For each type of motor there are many different mounting arrangements, for example foot mounting, flange mounting or combined foot and flange mounting. The cooling method can also differ very much, from the simplest motor with free self-circulation of air to a more complex motor with totally enclosed air-water cooling with an interchangeable cassette type of cooler.

To ensure a long lifetime for the motor it is important to keep it with the correct degree of protection when under heavy-duty conditions in a servere environment. The two letters IP (International Protection) state the degree of protection followed by two digits, the first of which indicates the degree of protection against contact and penetration of solid objects, whereas the second states the motor’s degree of protection against water.
The end of the motor is defined in the IEC-standard as follows:

  • The D-end is normally the drive end of the motor.
  • The N-end is normally the non-drive end of the motor.

Note that in this handbook we will focus on asynchronous motors only.

Squirrel cage motors

In this chapter the focus has been placed on the squirrel cage motor, the most common type of motor on the market. It is relatively cheap and the maintenance cost is normally low.

There are many different manufacturers represented on the market, selling at various prices. Not all motors have the same performance and quality as for example motors from ABB. High efficiency enables significant savings in energy costs during the motor’s normal endurance. The low level of noise is something else that is of interest today, as is the ability to withstand severe environments.

Current diagram for typical squirell cageThere are also other parameters that differ. The design of the rotor affects the starting current and torque and the variation can be really large between different manufacturers for the same power rating. When using a softstarter it is good if the motor has a high starting torque at Direct-on-line (D.O.L) start. When these motors are used together with a softstarter it is possible to reduce the starting current further when compared to motors with low starting torque. The number of poles also affects the technical data. A motor with two poles often has a lower starting torque than motors with four or more poles.

Voltage

Three-phase single speed motors can normally be connected for two different voltage levels. The three stator windings are connected in star (Y) or delta (D). The windings can also be connected in series or parallel, Y or YY for instance. If the rating plate on a squirrel cage motor indicates voltages for both the star and delta connection, it is possible to use the motor for both 230 V, and 400 V as an example.

The winding is delta connected at 230 V and if the main voltage is 400 V, the Y-connection is used. When changing the main voltage it is important to remember that for the same power rating the rated motor current will change depending on the voltage level. The method for connecting the motor to the terminal blocks for star or delta connection is shown in the picture below.

Wiring diagram for Y- and Delta connection

Power factor

A motor always consumes active power, which it converts into mechanical action. Reactive power is also required for the magnetisation of the motor but it doesn’t perform any action. In the diagram below the active and reactive power is represented by P and Q, which together give the power S.

Diagram indicating P, Q, S and Cos φThe ratio between the active power (kW) and the reactive power (kVA) is known as the power factor, and is often designated as the cos φ. A normal value is between 0.7 and 0.9, when running where the lower value is for small motors and the higher for large ones.

Speed

The speed of an AC motor depends on two things: the number of poles of the stator winding and the main frequency. At 50 Hz, a motor will run at a speed related to a constant of 6000 divided by the number of poles and for a 60 Hz motor the constant is 7200 rpm.

To calculate the speed of a motor, the following formula can be used:


n = speed
f = net frequency
p = number of poles

Example:
4-pole motor running at 50 Hz

This speed is the synchronous speed and a squirrel-cage or a slip-ring motor can never reach it. At unloaded condition the speed will be very close to synchronous speed and will then drop when the motor is loaded.

Diagram showing syncronous speed vs.rated speedThe difference between the synchronous and asynchronous speed also named rated speed is ”the slip” and it is possible to calculate this by using the following formula:

s = slip (a normal value is between 1 and 3 %)
n1 = synchronous speed
n = asynchronous speed (rated speed)

Table for synchronous speed at different number of poles and frequency:

Table for synchronous speed at different number of poles and frequency

Torque

The starting torque for a motor differs significantly depending on the size of the motor. A small motor, e.g. ≤ 30 kW, normally has a value of between 2.5 and 3 times the rated torque, and for a medium size motor, say up to 250 kW, a typical value is between 2 to 2.5 times the rated torque. Really big motors have a tendency to have a very low starting torque, sometimes even lower than the rated torque. It is not possible to start such a motor fully loaded not even at D.O.L start.

The rated torque of a motor can be calculated using the following formula:

Mr = Rated torque (Nm)
Pr = Rated motor power (kW)
nr = Rated motor speed (rpm)

Torque diagram for a typical squirrel cage motorSlip-ring motors

In some cases when a D.O.L start is not permitted due to the high starting current, or when starting with a star-delta starter will give too low starting torque, a slip-ring motor is used. The motor is started by changing the rotor resistance and when speeding up the resistance is gradually removed until the rated speed is achieved and the motor is working at the equivalent rate of a standard squirrel-cage motor.

Torque diagram for a slip-ring motor | Current diagram for a slip-ring motor

In general, if a softstarter is going to be used for this application you also need to replace the motor.

The advantage of a slip-ring motor is that the starting current will be lower and it is possible to adjust the starting torque up to the maximum torque.

SOURCE: ABB – SOFTSTARTER HANDBOOK

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The Power Factor Correction

The Power Factor Correction

The power factor of a load, which may be a single power-consuming item, or a number of items (for example an entire installation), is given by the ratio of P/S i.e. kW divided by kVA at any given moment.

The value of a power factor will range from 0 to 1. If currents and voltages are perfectly sinusoidal signals, power factor equals cos ϕ.

A power factor close to unity means that the reactive energy is small compared with the active energy, while a low value of power factor indicates the opposite condition.

Power vector diagram
  • Active power P (in kW)
    • Single phase (1 phase and neutral): P = V x I x cos ϕ
    • Single phase (phase to phase): P = U x I x cos ϕ
    • Three phase (3 wires or 3 wires + neutral): P = √3 x U x I x cos ϕ
  • Reactive power Q (in kvar)
    • Single phase (1 phase and neutral): P = V x I x sin ϕ
    • Single phase (phase to phase): Q = UI sin ϕ
    • Three phase (3 wires or 3 wires + neutral): P = √3 x U x I x sin ϕ
  • Apparent power S (in kVA)
    • Single phase (1 phase and neutral): S = VI
    • Single phase (phase to phase): S = UI
    • Three phase (3 wires or 3 wires + neutral): P = √3 x U x I

where:

V = Voltage between phase and neutral
U = Voltage between phases

  • For balanced and near-balanced loads on 4-wire systems

The power factor is the ratio of kW to kVA. The closer the power factor approaches its maximum possible value of 1, the greater the benefit to consumer and supplier.
PF = P (kW) / S (kVA)
P = Active power
S = Apparent power

Current and voltage vectors, and derivation of the power diagram

The power vector diagram is a useful artifice, derived directly from the true rotating vector diagram of currents and voltage, as follows:

The power-system voltages are taken as the reference quantities, and one phase only is considered on the assumption of balanced 3-phase loading. The reference phase voltage (V) is co-incident with the horizontal axis, and the current (I) of that phase will, for practically all power-system loads, lag the voltage by an angle ϕ. The component of I which is in phase with V is the wattful component of I and is equal to I cos ϕ, while VI cos ϕ equals the active power (in kV) in the circuit, if V is expressed in kV.

The component of I which lags 90 degrees behind V is the wattless component of I and is equal to I sin ϕ, while VI sin ϕ equals the reactive power (in kvar) in the circuit, if V is expressed in kV.

If the vector I is multiplied by V, expressed in kV, then VI equals the apparent power (in kVA) for the circuit. The above kW, kvar and kVA values per phase, when multiplied by 3, can therefore conveniently represent the relationships of kVA, kW, kvar and power factor for a total 3-phase load, as shown in Figure K3 .

SOURCE: Schneider Electric

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Reduction In The Cost Of Electricity

Reduction In The Cost Of Electricity

Good management in the consumption of reactive energy brings with it the following economic advantages.

These notes are based on an actual tariff structure of a kind commonly applied in Europe, designed to encourage consumers to minimize their consumption of reactive energy.

The installation of power-factor correcting capacitors on installations permits the consumer to reduce his electricity bill by maintaining the level of reactive-power consumption below a value contractually agreed with the power supply authority.

In this particular tariff, reactive energy is billed according to the tan ϕ criterion.

As previously noted:

forumula

At the supply service position, the power supply distributor delivers reactive energy free, until:

  • The point at which it reaches 40% of the active energy (tan ϕ = 0.4) for a maximum period of 16 hours each day (from 06-00 h to 22-00 h) during the mostheavily loaded period (often in winter)
  • Without limitation during light-load periods in winter, and in spring and summer.

During the periods of limitation, reactive energy consumption exceeding 40% of the active energy (i.e. tan ϕ > 0.4) is billed monthly at the current rates. Thus, the quantity of reactive energy billed in these periods will be:

kvarh (to be billed) = kWh (tan ϕ – 0.4) where kWh is the active energy consumed during the periods of limitation, and kWh tan ϕ is the total reactive energy during a period of limitation, and 0.4 kWh is the amount of reactive energy delivered free during a period of limitation.

Tan ϕ = 0.4 corresponds to a power factor of 0.93 so that, if steps are taken to ensure that during the limitation periods the power factor never falls below 0.93, the consumer will have nothing to pay for the reactive power consumed.

Against the financial advantages of reduced billing, the consumer must balance the cost of purchasing, installing and maintaining the power-factor-improvement capacitors and controlling switchgear, automatic control equipment (where stepped levels of compensation are required) together with the additional kWh consumed by the dielectric.

Losses of the capacitors, etc. It may be found that it is more economic to provide partial compensation only, and that paying for some of the reactive energy consumed is less expensive than providing 100% compensation.

The question of power-factor correction is a matter of optimization, except in very simple cases.

Technical/economic optimization

A high power factor allows the optimization of the components of an installation. Overating of certain equipment can be avoided, but to achieve the best results, the correction should be effected as close to the individual items of inductive plant as possible.

Reduction of cable size

Figure 1 shows the required increase in the size of cables as the power factor is reduced from unity to 0.4.

Fig. 1 : Multiplying factor for cable size as a function of cos φ

Fig. 1 : Multiplying factor for cable size as a function of cos φ

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The Benefits of VFDs In HVAC Systems

The Benefits of VFDs In HVAC Systems

One of the most successful energy management tools ever applied to building HVAC systems is the variable frequency drive (VFD). For more than 20 years, VFDs have successfully been installed on fan and pump motors in a range of variable load applications. Energy savings vary from 35 to 50 percent over conventional constant speed applications, resulting in a return on investment of six months to two years.

While the number of applications suitable for early generation drives was limited based on the horsepower of the motor, today’s drives can be installed in practically any HVAC application found in commercial and institutional buildings. Systems can be operated at higher voltages than those used by earlier generations, resulting in off the shelf systems for motors up to 500 horsepower.

Early generation systems also suffered from low power factor. Low power factor robs the facility of electrical distribution capacity and can result in cost penalties imposed by electrical utility companies. Today’s systems operate at a nearly constant power factor over the entire speed range of the motor.

Another problem that has been corrected by today’s systems is operational noise. As the output frequency of the drives decreased in response to the load, vibrations induced in the motor laminations generated noise that was easily transmitted through the motor mounts to the building interior. Today’s drives operate at higher frequencies, resulting in the associated noise being above the audible range.

And VFDs continue to evolve. From numerous system benefits to an increasing range of available applications, VFDs are proving to be ever more useful and powerful.

The Heart of VFDs

Most conventional building HVAC applications are designed to operate fans and pumps at a constant speed. Building loads, however, are anything but constant. In a conventional system, some form of mechanical throttling can be used to reduce water or air flow in the system. The drive motor, however, continues to operate at full speed, using nearly the same amount of energy regardless of the heating or cooling load on the system. While mechanical throttling can provide a good level of control, it is not very efficient. VFDs offer an effective and efficient alternative.

Three factors work together to improve operating efficiency with VFDs:

1. Operating at less than full load. Building systems are sized for peak load conditions. In typical applications, peak load conditions occur between 1 and 5 percent of the annual operating hours. This means that pump and fan motors are using more energy than necessary 95 to 99 percent of their operating hours.

2. Oversized system designs. Designing for peak load oversizes the system for most operating hours. This condition is further compounded by the practice of oversizing the system design to allow for underestimated and unexpected loads as well as future loads that might result from changes in how the building space is used.

3. Motor energy use is a function of speed. The most commonly used motor in building HVAC systems is the induction motor. With induction motors, the power drawn by the motor varies with the cube of the motor’s speed. This means that if the motor can be slowed by 25 percent of its normal operating speed, its energy use is reduced by nearly 60 percent. At a 50 percent reduction in speed, energy use is reduced by nearly 90 percent.

The installation of a VFD in an HVAC application addresses the inefficiencies introduced by the first two factors, while producing the energy savings made possible by the third. The VFD accomplishes this by converting 60 cycle line current to direct current, then to an output that varies in voltage and frequency based on the load placed on the system. As the system load decreases, the VFD’s controller reduces the motor’s operating speed so that the flow rate through the system meets but does not exceed the load requirements.

VFD Benefits

The most significant benefit to using a VFD is energy savings. By matching system capacity to the actual load throughout the entire year, major savings in system motor energy use are achieved.

Another benefit of the units is reduced wear and tear on the motors. When an induction motor is started, it draws a much higher current than during normal operation. This inrush current can be three to ten times the full-load operating current for the motor, generating both heat and stress in the motor’s windings and other components. In motors that start and stop frequently, this contributes to early motor failures.

In contrast, when a motor connected to a VFD is started, the VFD applies a very low frequency and low voltage to the motor. Both are gradually ramped up at a controlled rate to normal operating conditions, extending motor life.

VFDs also provide more precise levels of control of applications. For example, high-rise buildings use a booster pump system on the domestic water supply to maintain adequate water pressure at all levels within the building. Conventional pump controls in this type of application can maintain the pressure within a certain range, but a VFD-based system can maintain more precise control over a wider range of flow rates, while reducing energy requirements and pump wear.

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SOURCE: facilitiesnet

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Busbar Technical Specification

Busbar Technical Specification

Copper busbars are normally part of a larger generation or transmission system. The continuous rating of the main components such as generators, transformers, rectifiers, etc., therefore determine the nominal current carried by the busbars but in most power systems a one to four second short-circuit current has to be accommodated.

The value of these currents is calculated from the inductive reactances of the power system components and gives rise to different maximum short-circuit currents in the various system sections.

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Performance under Short-circuit Conditions

Busbar trunking systems to BS EN 60439-2 are designed to withstand the effects of short-circuit currents resulting from a fault at any load point in the system, e.g. at a tap off point or at the end of a feeder run.
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Rating under Short-circuit Conditions

The withstand ability will be expressed in one or more of the following ways:

  1. short-time withstand rating (current and time)
  2. peak current withstand rating
  3. conditional short-circuit rating when protected by a short-circuit protective device (s.c.p.d.)

These ratings are explained in more detail:

1. Short-time Withstand Rating

This is an expression of the value of rms current that the system can withstand for a specified period of time without being adversely affected such as to prevent further service. Typically the period of time associated with a short-circuit fault current will be 1 second, however, other time periods may be applicable.

The rated value of current may be anywhere from about 10kA up to 50kA or more according to the construction and thermal rating of the system.

2. Peak Current Withstand Rating

This defines the peak current, occurring virtually instantaneously, that the system can withstand, this being the value that exerts the maximum stress on the supporting insulation.

In an A.C. system rated in terms of short-time withstand current the peak current rating must be at least equal to the peak current produced by the natural asymmetry occurring at the initiation of a fault current in an inductive circuit. This peak is dependent on the power-factor of the circuit under fault conditions and can exceed the value of the steady state fault current by a factor of up to 2.2 times.

3. Conditional Short-circuit Rating

Short-circuit protective devices (s.c.p.ds) are commonly current-limiting devices; that is they are able to respond to a fault current within the first few milliseconds and prevent the current rising to its prospective peak value. This applies to HRC fuses and many circuit breakers in the instantaneous tripping mode. Advantage is taken of these current limiting properties in the rating of busbar trunking for high prospective fault levels. The condition is that the specified s.c.p.d. (fuse or circuit breaker) is installed up stream of the trunking. Each of the ratings above takes into account the two major effects of a fault current, these being heat and electromagnetic force.

The heating effect needs to be limited to avoid damage to supporting insulation. The electromagnetic effect produces forces between the busbars which stress the supporting mechanical structure, including vibrational forces on A.C. The only way to verify the quoted ratings satisfactorily is by means of type tests to the British Standard.
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Type Testing

Busbar trunking systems are tested in accordance with BS EN 60439-2 to establish one or more of the short circuit withstand ratings defined above. In the case of short-time rating the specified current is applied for the quoted time. A separate test may be required to establish the peak withstand current if the quoted value is not obtained during the short-time test. In the case of a conditional rating with a specified s.c.p.d. the test is conducted with the full prospective current value at the trunking feeder unit and not less than 105% rated voltage, since the s.c.p.d. (fuse or circuit breaker) will be voltage dependent in terms of let through energy.
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Application

It is necessary for the system designer to determine the prospective fault current at every relevant point in the installation by calculation, measurement or based on information provided e.g. by the supply authority. The method for this is well established, in general terms being the source voltage divided by the circuit impedance to each point. The designer will then select protective devices at each point where a circuit change occurs e.g. between a feeder and a distribution run of a lower current rating. The device selected must operate within the limits of the busbar trunking short-circuit withstand.

The time delay settings of any circuit breaker must be within the specified short time quoted for the prospective fault current. Any s.c.p.d. used against a conditional short-circuit rating must have energy limitation not exceeding that of the quoted s.c.p.d. For preference the s.c.p.d. recommended by the trunking manufacturer should be used.
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Voltage Drop

The requirements for voltage-drop are given in BS 7671: Regulation 525-01-02. For busbar trunking systems the method of calculating voltage drop is given in BS EN 60439-2 from which the following guidance notes have been prepared.

Voltage Drop

Figures for voltage drop for busbar trunking systems are given in the manufacturer’s literature.

The figures are expressed in volts or milli-volts per metre or 100 metres, allowing a simple calculation for a given length of run.

The figures are usually given as line-to-line voltage drop for a 3 phase balanced load.

The figures take into account resistance to joints and temperature of conductors and assume the system is fully loaded.

Standard Data

BS EN 60439-2 requires the manufacturer to provide the following data for the purposes of calculation, where necessary:

R20 the mean ohmic resistance of the system, unloaded, at 20ºC per metre per phase

X the mean reactance of the system, per metre per phase

For systems rated over 630A:

RT the mean ohmic resistance when loaded at rated current per metre per phase

Application

In general the voltage drop figures provided by the manufacturer are used directly to establish the total voltage drop on a given system; however this will give a pessimistic result in the majority of cases.

Where a more precise calculation is required (e.g. for a very long run or where the voltage level is more critical) advantage may be taken of the basic data to obtain a more exact figure.

  1. Resistance – the actual current is usually lower than the rated current and hence the resistance of the conductors will be lower due to the reduced operating temperature.
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    Rx = R20 [1+0.004(Tc - 20)] ohms/metre and Tc is approximately Ta + Tr

    where Rx is the actual conductor resistance

    Ta is the ambient temperature

    Tr is the full load temperature rise in ºC (assume say 55ºC)

  2. Power factor – the load power factor will influence the voltage drop according to the resistance and reactance of the busbar trunking itself.
    The voltage drop line-to-line ( Δv) is calculated as follows:

    Δv = √ 3 I (R x cos Φ + X sin Φ) volts/metre

    where I is the load current

    Rx is the actual conductor resistance (Ω/m)

    X is the conductor reactance (Ω/m)

    Cos Φ is the load power factor

    sin Φ = sin (cos-1 Φ )

  3. Distributed Load – where the load is tapped off the busbar trunking along its length this may also be taken into account by calculating the voltage drop for each section. As a rule of thumb the full load voltage drop may be divided by 2 to give the approximate voltage drop at the end of a system with distributed load.
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  4. Frequency – the manufacturers data will generally give reactance (X) at 50Hz for mains supply in the UK. At any other frequency the reactance should be re-calculated.
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    Xf = x F/50
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    where Xf is the reactance at frequency F in Hz

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Source: Siemens Barduct Busbar Specification

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