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ABB - General about motors

ABB - General about motors

Modern electrical motors are available in many different forms, such as single phase motors, three-phase motors, brake motors, synchronous motors, asynchronous motors, special customised motors, two speed motors, three speed motors, and so on, all with their own performance and characteristics.
For each type of motor there are many different mounting arrangements, for example foot mounting, flange mounting or combined foot and flange mounting. The cooling method can also differ very much, from the simplest motor with free self-circulation of air to a more complex motor with totally enclosed air-water cooling with an interchangeable cassette type of cooler.

To ensure a long lifetime for the motor it is important to keep it with the correct degree of protection when under heavy-duty conditions in a servere environment. The two letters IP (International Protection) state the degree of protection followed by two digits, the first of which indicates the degree of protection against contact and penetration of solid objects, whereas the second states the motor’s degree of protection against water.
The end of the motor is defined in the IEC-standard as follows:

  • The D-end is normally the drive end of the motor.
  • The N-end is normally the non-drive end of the motor.

Note that in this handbook we will focus on asynchronous motors only.

Squirrel cage motors

In this chapter the focus has been placed on the squirrel cage motor, the most common type of motor on the market. It is relatively cheap and the maintenance cost is normally low.

There are many different manufacturers represented on the market, selling at various prices. Not all motors have the same performance and quality as for example motors from ABB. High efficiency enables significant savings in energy costs during the motor’s normal endurance. The low level of noise is something else that is of interest today, as is the ability to withstand severe environments.

Current diagram for typical squirell cageThere are also other parameters that differ. The design of the rotor affects the starting current and torque and the variation can be really large between different manufacturers for the same power rating. When using a softstarter it is good if the motor has a high starting torque at Direct-on-line (D.O.L) start. When these motors are used together with a softstarter it is possible to reduce the starting current further when compared to motors with low starting torque. The number of poles also affects the technical data. A motor with two poles often has a lower starting torque than motors with four or more poles.

Voltage

Three-phase single speed motors can normally be connected for two different voltage levels. The three stator windings are connected in star (Y) or delta (D). The windings can also be connected in series or parallel, Y or YY for instance. If the rating plate on a squirrel cage motor indicates voltages for both the star and delta connection, it is possible to use the motor for both 230 V, and 400 V as an example.

The winding is delta connected at 230 V and if the main voltage is 400 V, the Y-connection is used. When changing the main voltage it is important to remember that for the same power rating the rated motor current will change depending on the voltage level. The method for connecting the motor to the terminal blocks for star or delta connection is shown in the picture below.

Wiring diagram for Y- and Delta connection

Power factor

A motor always consumes active power, which it converts into mechanical action. Reactive power is also required for the magnetisation of the motor but it doesn’t perform any action. In the diagram below the active and reactive power is represented by P and Q, which together give the power S.

Diagram indicating P, Q, S and Cos φThe ratio between the active power (kW) and the reactive power (kVA) is known as the power factor, and is often designated as the cos φ. A normal value is between 0.7 and 0.9, when running where the lower value is for small motors and the higher for large ones.

Speed

The speed of an AC motor depends on two things: the number of poles of the stator winding and the main frequency. At 50 Hz, a motor will run at a speed related to a constant of 6000 divided by the number of poles and for a 60 Hz motor the constant is 7200 rpm.

To calculate the speed of a motor, the following formula can be used:


n = speed
f = net frequency
p = number of poles

Example:
4-pole motor running at 50 Hz

This speed is the synchronous speed and a squirrel-cage or a slip-ring motor can never reach it. At unloaded condition the speed will be very close to synchronous speed and will then drop when the motor is loaded.

Diagram showing syncronous speed vs.rated speedThe difference between the synchronous and asynchronous speed also named rated speed is ”the slip” and it is possible to calculate this by using the following formula:

s = slip (a normal value is between 1 and 3 %)
n1 = synchronous speed
n = asynchronous speed (rated speed)

Table for synchronous speed at different number of poles and frequency:

Table for synchronous speed at different number of poles and frequency

Torque

The starting torque for a motor differs significantly depending on the size of the motor. A small motor, e.g. ≤ 30 kW, normally has a value of between 2.5 and 3 times the rated torque, and for a medium size motor, say up to 250 kW, a typical value is between 2 to 2.5 times the rated torque. Really big motors have a tendency to have a very low starting torque, sometimes even lower than the rated torque. It is not possible to start such a motor fully loaded not even at D.O.L start.

The rated torque of a motor can be calculated using the following formula:

Mr = Rated torque (Nm)
Pr = Rated motor power (kW)
nr = Rated motor speed (rpm)

Torque diagram for a typical squirrel cage motorSlip-ring motors

In some cases when a D.O.L start is not permitted due to the high starting current, or when starting with a star-delta starter will give too low starting torque, a slip-ring motor is used. The motor is started by changing the rotor resistance and when speeding up the resistance is gradually removed until the rated speed is achieved and the motor is working at the equivalent rate of a standard squirrel-cage motor.

Torque diagram for a slip-ring motor | Current diagram for a slip-ring motor

In general, if a softstarter is going to be used for this application you also need to replace the motor.

The advantage of a slip-ring motor is that the starting current will be lower and it is possible to adjust the starting torque up to the maximum torque.

SOURCE: ABB – SOFTSTARTER HANDBOOK

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Transformer Ratings

Transformer Ratings

Transformer size or capacity is most often expressed in kVA. “We require 30 kVA of power for this system” is one example, or “The facility has a 480 VAC feed rated for 112.5 kVA”.

However, reliance upon only kVA rating can result insafety and performance problems when sizing transformers to feed modern electronic equipment.

Use of off-the-shelf, general purpose transformers for electronics loads can lead to power quality and siting problems:

  • Single phase electronic loads can cause excessive transformer heating.
  • Electronic loads draw non-linear currents, resulting in low voltage and output voltage distortion.
  • Oversizing for impedance and thermal performance can result in a transformer with a significantly larger footprint.

It is vital for the systems designer to understand all of the factors that affect transformer effectiveness and performance.
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Thermal Performance

Historically, transformers have been developed to supply 60 Hz, linear loads such as lights, motors, and heaters. Electronic loads were a small part of the total connected load. A system designer could be assured that if transformer voltage and current ratings were not exceeded, the transformer would not overheat, and would perform as expected. A standard transformer is designed and specified with three main parameters: kVA Rating, Impedance, and Temperature Rise.
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KVA Rating

The transformer voltage and current specification. KVA is simply the load voltage times the load current. A single phase transformer rated for 120 VAC and 20 Amperes would be rated for 120 x 20 = 2400 VA, or 2.4 KVA (thousand VA).
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Impedance

Transformer Impedance and Voltage Regulation are closely related: a measure of the transformer voltage drop when supplying full load current. A transformer with a nominal output voltage of 120 VAC and a Voltage Regulation of 5% has an output voltage of 120 VAC at no-load and (120 VAC – 5%) at full load – the transformer output voltage will be 114 VAC at full load. Impedance is related to the transformer thermal performance because any voltage drop in the transformer is converted to heat in the windings.
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Temperature Rise

Steel selection, winding capacity, impedance, leakage current, overall steel and winding design contribute to total transformer heat loss. The transformer heat loss causes the transformer temperature to rise. Manufacturers design the transformer cooling, and select materials, to accommodate this temperature rise.

Transformer Heat Loss

Transformer Heat Loss

Use of less expensive material with a lower temperature rating will require the manufacturer to design the transformer for higher airflow and cooling, often resulting in a larger transformer. Use of higher quality materials with a higher temperature rating permits a more compact transformer design.

Transformer Insulation Systems

Transformer Insulation Systems

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“K” Factor Transformer Rating

In the 1980′s, power quality engineers began encountering a new phenomenon: non-linear loads, such as computers and peripherals, began to exceed linear loads on some distribution panels. This resulted in large harmonic currents being drawn, causing excessive transformer heating due to eddy-current losses, skin effect, and core flux density increases.

Standard transformers, not designed for nonlinear harmonic currents were overheating and failing even though RMS currents were well within transformer ratings.

In response to this problem, IEEE C57.110-1986 developed a method of quantifying harmonic currents. A “k” factor was the result, calculated from the individual harmonic components and the effective heating such a harmonic would cause in a transformer. Transformer manufacturers began designing transformers that could supply harmonic currents, rated with a “k” factor. Typical “K” factor applications include:

  • K-4: Electric discharge lighting, UPS with input filtering, Programmable logic controllers and solid state controls
  • K-13: Telecommunications equipment, UPS systems, multi-wire receptacle circuits in schools, health-care, and production areas
  • K-20: Main-frame computer loads, solid state motor drives, critical care areas of hospitals

“K” factor is a good way to assure that transformers will not overheat and fail. However, “K” factor is primarily concerned with thermal issues. Selection of a “K” factor transformer may result in power quality improvement, but this depends upon manufacturer and design.
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Transformer Impedance

Transformer impedance is the best measure of the transformer’s ability to supply an electronic load with optimum power quality. Many power problems do not come from the utility but are internally generated from the current requirements of other loads.

While a “K” factor transformer can feed these loads and not overheat, a low impedance transformer will provide the best quality power. As an example, consider a 5% impedance transformer. When an electronic load with a 200% inrush current is turned on, a voltage sag of 10% will result. A low impedance transformer (1%) would provide only a 2% voltage sag – a substantial improvement. Transformer impedance may be specified as a percentage, or alternately, in Ohms (Ω) from Phase- Phase or Phase-Neutral.
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High Frequency Transformer Impedance

Most transformer impedance discussions involve the 60 Hz transformer impedance. This is the power frequency, and is the main concern for voltage drops, fault calculations, and power delivery. However, nonlinear loads draw current at higher harmonics. Voltage drops occur at both 60 Hz and higher frequencies. It is common to model transformer impedance as a resistor, often expressed in ohms. In fact, a transformer behaves more like a series resistor and inductor.

The voltage drop of the resistive portion is independent of frequency, the voltage drop of the inductor is frequency dependent.

Standard Transformer impedances rise rapidly with frequency. However, devices designed specifically for use with nonlinear loads use special winding and steel lamination designs to minimize impedance at both 60 Hz and higher frequencies. As a result, the output voltage of such designs is far better quality than for standard transformers.
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Recommendations for Transformer Sizing

System design engineers who must specify and apply transformers have several options when selecting transformers.
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Do It Yourself Approach

With this approach, a larger than required standard transformer is specified in order to supply harmonic currents and minimize voltage drop. Transformer oversizing was considered prudent design in the days before transformer manufacturers understood harmonic loads, and remains an attractive option from a pure cost standpoint. However, such a practice today has several problems:

  • A larger footprint and volume than low impedance devices specifically designed for non-linear loads
  • Poor high frequency impedance
  • Future loads may lead to thermal and power quality problems
Standard Isolation Transformer

Standard Isolation Transformer

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“K”-factor Rated Transformers

Selecting and using “K”-factor rated transformers is a prudent way to ensure that transformer overheating will not occur. Unfortunately, lack of standardization makes the “K” factor rating a measure only of thermal performance, not impedance or power quality.

Percent Impedance

Percent Impedance

Some manufacturers achieve a good “K” factor using design techniques that lower impedance and enhance power quality, others simply derate components and temperature ratings. Only experience with a particular transformer manufacturer can determine if a “K” factor transformer addresses both thermal and power quality concerns.
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Transformers Designed for Non-Linear Loads

Transformers designed specifically for non-linear loads incorporate substantial design improvements that address both thermal and power quality concerns. Such devices are low impedance, compact, and have better high frequency performance than standard or “K” factor designs. As a result, this type of transformer is the optimum design solution.

This type of transformer may be more expensive than standard transformers, due to higher amounts of iron and copper, higher quality materials, and more expensive winding and stacking techniques. However, the benefits of such a design in power quality and smaller size justify the extra cost, and make the low impedance transformer the most cost effective design overall.

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Power quality

Power quality

The term power quality seeks to quantify the condition of the electrical supply. It not only relates largely to voltage, but also deals with current and it is largely the corrupting effect of current disturbances upon voltage. Power quality can be quantified by a very broad range of parameters, some of which have been recognized and studied for as long as electrical power has been utilized. However, the advent of the term itself is more modern and it has created a useful vehicle for discussing and quantifying all factors that can describe supply quality. Power quality is yet another means of analysing and expressing electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), but in terms of the frequency spectrum, power quality charac- terizes mainly low-frequency phenomena. Perhaps because of this and because of the manner in which it affects electrical equipment, power quality has largely been dealt with by engineers with electrical power experience rather than those with an EMC expertise. In reality, resolving power problems can benefit from all available expertise, particularly since power quality disorders and higher frequency emissions can produce similar effects.

In 1989, the European Community defined the supply of electricity as a product, and it is therefore closely related to the provisions and protection of the EMC Directive (89/336/EEC), but in drawing a comparison between electricity and other manufactured product it is essential to recall a significant difference.

Electricity is probably unique in being a product which is manufactured, delivered and used at the same time. An electricity manufacturer cannot institute a batch testing process for example and pull substandard products out of the supply chain. By the time electricity is tested it will have been delivered and used by the customer whether it was of good quality or not.

Key parameters

The parameters that are commonly used to characterize supplies are listed in Table 1 together with the typical tolerance limits which define acceptable norms. Within Europe these power quality limits are defined by the EN 61000 series of standards in order to be compatible with the susceptibility limits set for equipment.

Table 1: Summary of power quality levels defined by EN 50160
.Power frequency (50Hz).Interconnected systems
.±1% (95% of week)
.+4% (absolute level)
.−6% (absolute level)
.Supply voltage variations on 230V nominal.±10% (95% of week based on
.10 min samples, rms)
.Rapid voltage changes.±5% Frequent
.±10% Infrequent
.Flicker.Pk=1.0 (95% of week)
.Supply voltage dips.Majority
.Few 10s
.Duration <1s
.Depth <60%
.Some locations
.Few 1000 per year of <15% depth
.Short interruptions.20–500 per year
.Duration 1s of 100% depth
.Long interruptions.10–50 per year
.Duration >180s of 100% depth
.Temporary power frequency overvoltage.<1.5kV
.Transient overvoltages.Majority
.<6kV
.Exceptionally
.>6kV
.Supply voltage unbalance.Majority
.<2%(95% of the week)
.Exceptionally
.>2%, <3%(95% of the week)
.Harmonic voltage distortion.THD <8%(95% of the week)
.Interharmonic voltage distortion.Under consideration
.Mains signalling.95 to 148.5kHz at up to 1.4Vrms (not in MV)

The more a supply deviates from these limits, the more likely it is that malfunction could be experienced in terminating equipment. However, individual items of equipment will have particular sensitivity to certain power quality parameters while having a wider tolerance to others. Table 2 provides examples of equipment and the power quality parameters to which they are particularly sensitive. Table 2 shows a preponderance of examples with a vulnerability to voltage dips. Of all the power quality parameters, this is probably the most troublesome to the manufacturing industry; and in the early 1970s, as the industry moved towards a reliance on electronic rather than electromagnetic controls, it was commonly observed how much more vulnerable the industrial processes were to supply disturbances.

Supply distortion (characterized by harmonics) is another power quality parameter that has received enormous attention, with many articles, textbooks and papers written on the subject. However, the modern practices that will be discussed later have reduced the degree to which this currently presents a problem. Other parameters tend to be much less problematic in reality, although that is not to say that perceptions sometimes suggest otherwise. Voltage surge and tran- sient overvoltage in particular are often blamed for a wide range of problems.

Table 2: Examples of sensitivity to particular power quality parameters
Equipment typeVulnerable power quality parameter Effect if exceededRang
.Induction motor .Voltage unbalance.Excessive rotor heating.<3%
.Power factor correction .capacitors.Spectral frequency .content.This is usually .defined .in terms of harmonic .distortion.Capacitor failure due to .excessive current flow or .voltage.Most sensitive if .resonance occurs.In resonant .conditions
.PLCs .Voltage dips.Disruption to the programmed .functionality.V tr
.Computing systems .Voltage dips.Disruption to the programmed .functionality.V
.Variable speed drives, .motor starters and .attracted .armature control .relays .Voltage dips.Disruption to the control system .causing shutdown. V
.Power transformers .Spectral frequency content of .load current.This is usually .defined in terms of harmonic .distortion.Increased losses leading to excessive temperature rise.At full load
.Devices employing .phase .control, such as .light .dimmers and .generator .automatic .voltage regulator .(AVRs) .Alteration in waveform zero .crossing due to waveform .distortion, causing multiple .crossing or phase asymmetry.Instability.Will depend .upon the r
.Motor driven .speed-.sensitive plant .Induction and synchronous .motor shaft speed are .proportional to supply .frequency. Some driven loads .are .sensitive to even small .speed variations.The motors themselves are .tolerant of small speed .variations.At high supply .frequencies (>10%) shaft .stresses may be excessive due .to high running speeds.Limits .depend on .the .sensitivity

However, very often this is a scapegoat when the actual cause cannot be identified. Even when correlation with switching voltage transients is correctly observed, the coupling introduced by poor wiring installations or bad earth bonding practices can be the real problem. Unlike the other power quality parameters, voltage transients have a high frequency content and will couple readily through stray capacitance and mutual inductance into neighbouring circuits. Coupling into closed conductor loops that interface with sensitive circuits such as screens and drain wires can easily lead to spurious events.

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